top of page

Cell Death Induced Autophagy Contributes to Terminal Differentiation of Skin and Skin Appendages

Koenig, U; Robenek, H; Barresi, C; Brandstetter, M; Resch, GP; Groger, M; Pap, T; Hartmann, C

Aug 4, 2019

Autophagy, vol. 16, no. 5, Aug. 2019, pp. 932–45. PubMed Central,

In the adult mammalian skin, cells are constantly renewing, differentiating and moving upward, to finally die in a yet not fully understood manner. Here, we provide evidence that macroautophagy/autophagy has a dual role in the skin. In addition to its known catabolic protective role as an evolutionary conserved upstream regulator of lysosomal degradation, we show that autophagy induced cell death (CDA) occurs in epithelial lineage-derived organs, such as the inter-follicular epidermis, the sebaceous- and the Harderian gland. By utilizing GFP-LC3 transgenic and ATG7-deficient mice, we show that CDA is initiated during terminal differentiation at a stage when the cells have become highly resistant to apoptosis. In these transitional cells, the Golgi compartment expands, which accounts for the formation of primary lysosomes, and the nucleus starts to condense. During CDA a burst of autophagosome formation is observed, first the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is phagocytosed followed by autophagy of the nucleus. By this selective form of cell death, most of the cytoplasmic organelles are degraded, but structural proteins remain intact. In the absence of autophagy, consequently, parts of the ER, ribosomes, and chromatin remain. A burst of autophagy was stochastically observed in single cells of the epidermis and collectively in larger areas of ductal cells, arguing for a coordinated induction. We conclude that autophagy is an integral part of cell death in keratinocyte lineage cells and participates in their terminal cell fate.

Full Text:

Read Article


Flexible Fasting.png

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only.  The content of this blog is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard, or delay in obtaining, medical advice for any medical condition they may have, and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

  • Facebook
  • YouTube
  • Pinterest
  • Instagram

© 2021 by Flexible Fasting • All rights reserved • Created + Maintained by EmDesign

Privacy Policy • Legal Disclaimer  • Terms of Use • HSA/FSA Information

bottom of page